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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Make] Projects 

hhiiilH ho/ 1 !/ tuMaal/ chare r\icf*f\\tat* 



build, hack, tweak, share, discover,- 



Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Written By: ladyada 



TOOLS: 



PARTS: 



Desoldering tool (1) 

Dremel rotary tool (1) 
or a small drill 

Flush diagonal cutters (1) 

Heat gun or hair dryer (1) 

Helping Hands tool (1) 
makes things go much faster 

Small screwdriver (1) 
to open Kill- A- Watt case 

Solder (1) 

Soldering iron (1) 

preferably with temperature control, 

stand and conical or small flat tip 



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• Kill A Watt (1) 
about $25 from a hardware store 

• XBEE module (1) 
XB24-ACI-001. about $20 from the Maker 
Shed (www.makershed.com), Adafruit 
(www, adafruit. com) . Digi-Key. or Mouser 

• XBEE adapter kit (1) 
$10 from Adafruit. or you can use 
another breakout/ carrier board with a 
regulated 3.3V power supply and status 
LEDs 

• Resistor (4) 
1/4W. 5%:4.7kQ (2). WkCl (2) 

• Capacitor (2) 
220/jF, 4V or higher. Try to get 5mm 
diameter (1). IO.OOOijF ("supercap"). 
6.3V. Try to get the 16mm diameter (1). 

Diode (1) 

Purchase at Digi-Key or Mouser 

• LED(1) 
Large diffused LED for easy viewing 

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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Heat Shrink tubing (1) 
1/16" and1/8" diameter 

Ribbon cable (1) 

About 32" length. Rainbow coloring 

makes it easier, or use flexible wire 

Double-sided foam tape (1) 
or you can use hot glue 

FTDI cabled) 

3.3V or 5V cable. $20 from Adafruit. 
connects XBee 6-pin serial adapter to 
computer USB 

Access to Windows-based computer (1) 
for updating XBee Firmware. You can 
run the Tweet-a-Watt code on any sort 
of computer; you only need a Windows 
machine to build it. 



SUMMARY 

By Limor Fried and Phillip Tor rone 

We live in a rented apartment, so we don't have hacking access to a power meter or breaker 
panel. But we still wanted to measure our household power usage long-term, so we 
developed the Tweet-a-Watt. It uses plug-in electricity monitors at each outlet to wirelessly 
send readings to a base station, which assembles them into reports you can analyze and 
graph. It can also broadcast updates via Twitter. 

Building your own power monitor isn't too tough and can save money, but we're not fans of 
sticking our fingers into 120V wiring. Instead, we built on top of a P3 Kill A Watt power 
monitor, which we found at the local hardware store. To track usage room by room, for 
example "kitchen," "bedroom," "workbench," and "office," you can use a 6-outlet power strip 
in each room to feed all the room's devices through a shared monitor. Each Kill A Watt can 
measure up to 15 amps, or about 1 ,800 watts, which is plenty for any normal room. 

You can build each wireless outlet monitor for about $50 with a few easily available 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



electronic parts and light soldering, and about the same for the receiver. No microcontroller 
programming or high voltage engineering is necessary! 



Step 1 — PREPARE THE WIRELESS MODULES 




• Assemble one of the XBee adapter 
kits into an XBee breakout board, 
following the included instructions. 

• Plug an XBee module onto the 
XBee breakout board and connect 
it to your computer via the FTDI 
cable. Plug the cable into the 6 
XBee pins running from GND 
(ground) to CTS (flow control), 
marked by a strip of metal flashing. 

• Identify which serial port (COM) 
the cable is connected to. Under 
Windows, open the Device 
Manager and check how the port is 
listed. Ours was COM4. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 


Step 2 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



PCSettiigs | Flange Test] Teimha|| Modem Cortfiguration | 



Com Port Setup 
Select Conn Port 



Communications Port [CO Mil 





Baud |9GO0 


d 




Flow Control |N0NE 


• 




DrtaBfe I s 


d 




Par*, |hONE 


d 




Stop Bits |l 


J 




Test /Quay 





Host Setup User Com Ports | Ethernet Com Ports | 
API 
T Enable API 

|~ Use escape characters [ATAP - 2} 



AT command Setup 

ASCII Hex 

Command Character (CC) P^ P^ 



Guard Time Before [BT] 

Guard Time After (AT) 

Modem Flash Update 
f~ No baud change 



1 1000 
1 1000 



• Download and install X-CTU 
software, which you can find by 
searching for "X-CTU" at digi.com . 
Launch the software, which 
configures and tests the XBee's 
radio. 

• In X-CTU, under the PC Settings 
tab, select the port you identified in 
the previous step and set the 
connection properties to 9,600bps, 
8 bit, no parity, 1 stop bit, no flow 
control (or 96008N1). Click the 
Test/Query button. A pop- up 
window should tell you that the 
communication was OK. 

• Under the Modem Configuration 
tab, click the Read button to read in 
the current version and settings of 
the firmware. Download the latest 
version by clicking the Download 
New Versions button and selecting 
Web. Then select the last version 
in the Version dropdown on the 
right, and click the Write button to 
upload it to the XBee. Check the 
Always Update Firmware checkbox 
to keep things up-to-date. 

• Unplug the XBee module and 
repeat the upgrade for your other 
modules. You can hot-swap if 
you're careful: unplug the adapter 
from the cable first, gently swap 
modules, and plug in the adapter 
again. Then run Test/Query, Read, 
and Write from X-CTU. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 3 



: X CTU [COM4] 



PC Sellings | Range Test 1 Teiminal Modem Configuration | 

Modem Parameters and Firmware Parameter View Profile Versions 



Read | Write | Restore | Pear Screen 
r Always uudate firmware 1 1 Show Defaults 



Download new 

versions.., 



Modem XBEE Function Set 

|XB24 TJ |XBE£ 802.154 



Version 
~ 3 |1QB3 _d 



-; -^ Networking 5. Security 
b (CJ CH - Channel 
B 13332) ID -PAN ID 
B (QJDH -Destination Adotess- High 
b 10) DL - Destination Addiess Low 
b (0| MY 1 b-bit Source Addre* » 
b (1 3A200) SH - Serial Number High 
b (4O0OF219) SL - Serial Number Low 
b (0) RN ■ Random Delay Slots 
b (0) MM ■ MAC Mode 
b (01 CE Coordinator Enable 
b (1FFEJSC- Scan Channels 
b (4) SD- Scan Duration 
b 101 A1 ■ End De vice Associalion 
b (0) A2 - Coordinator Association 
b (00) Al -Association Status 

->-^RF Interfacing 

b (4) PL ■ Power Level 
b [2QCA- CCA Threshold 

- _J Sleep Modes (NonBeacon) 



- 



Read parameters.. OK 



COM4 9500 3+1-1 FLOWNONE XB24 Ver:1083 



• Now we'll configure the monitor 
modules to send the data we want 
and sleep between transmissions. 
For each XBee module (except for 
one), plug it back into the cable, 
run X-CTU, and under Modem 
Configuration click Read to load the 
settings. Configure the modules as 
follows, scrolling down as needed 
to click and enter parameters in 
place: 

• 1. Set the M/ address (the 
identifier for the XBee) to 1 , then 
increment for each additional 
transmitter to tell them apart. 

• 2. Set the Sleep Mode SMto 4 
(cyclic). 

• 3. Set the Sleep Time STto 3 (3 
milliseconds after wake-up, go 
back to sleep). 

• 4. Set the Sleep Period SP to C8 
(0xC8 in hexadecimal = 200 = 2 
seconds between transmits). 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 4 

• 5. Set ADC 4 D4 to 2 (enable analog-digital converter D4). 

• 6. Set ADC DO to 2 (enable analog-digital converter DO). 

• 7. Set Samples to TX IT to 13 (0x13 = 19 samples). 

• 8. Set Sample Rate IRto 1 (1ms between samples). 

• Basically this means we'll have a single PAN network, each XBee will have a unique 
identifier, they'll stay in sleep mode most of the time, and they'll wake up every 2 seconds 
to take 19 samples from ADC and 4, 1 ms apart. 

• Click the Write button to upload the new settings. You should see the green activity (RSSI) 
LED blink every 2 seconds, indicating wake-up. Note that once the XBee is told to go into 
sleep mode, it won't communicate with X-CTU until you reset it by unplugging it from the 
FTDI cable. Repeat Steps 1h-1i for the other transmitter modules. Then label the XBees, 
using a Sharpie, stickers, or similar, so you can tell which ones are transmitters and which 
one is the receiver. 



© Make Projects www.makeprojects.com Page 7 of 20 



Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 5 — ASSEMBLE THE TRANSMITTER BOARDS 








• For wiring, refer to the schematic 
diagram at 
makezine.com/1 8/tweetawatt . 

• The unassembled XBee adapter 
kit(s) are for the transmitter 
modules. With each board, solder 
in the power supply components 
(labeled C1, C2, and IC1 on the 
schematic), the sockets, and the 
LED marked ASC. 

• Don't install IC2, R1, R3, 
or the RSSI LED. Don't 
clip the legs of the ASC LED, so 
that it will extend out to fit 
through the Kill A Watt case, and 
you can optionally replace it with 
a brighter LED. 

• Follow the schematic to solder in 
the two 10K resistors R4 and R6 
from the XBee's ADO and AD4 
(analog ins) to ground. Since we're 
not installing the voltage level 
shifter IC2, just run the resistors to 
the closest grounds, the pads for 
IC2pins 10 and 13. These 
resistors form a voltage divider that 
reduces the Kill A Watt's 5V signal 
down to 3.3V for the XBee. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 6 




• Cut and peel a 6", 4-wire length of ribbon cable. Solder 2 adjacent strands to the 4.7K 
resistors, reinforcing with heatshrink tubing. These wires will carry the current and voltage 
readings from the Kill A Watt. Clip the other ends of the 4.7K resistors short and solder 
them to piggyback on top of the 10K resistors on the analog-in side. 

• Solder the 2 other wires from the ribbon to +5V and GND on the breakout pin contacts at 
the bottom of the board. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 7 




• Solder in the reset capacitor, C3, between the XBee's reset pin (RST) and the nearest 
ground (the pad for IC2, pin 4). The long lead side (+) connects to reset. Give it some lead 
length so you can bend the cylinder down to tuck it next to the 3.3V regulator (IC1). This 
cap trickle-charges on the reset line so that the XBee waits a few seconds to start up. This 
prevents the XBee from drawing too much current from the Kill A Watt. 

• At the other end of the 4-wire ribbon, solder the +5V and GND wires to the positive (+) and 
striped negative (-) terminals of the enormous capacitor C4. This capacitor continuously 
vampires power from the Kill A Watt, then dumps it to the XBee every few seconds when 
the radio transmits. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 8 




• Trim the legs of the supercap and solder its anode (+) leg to diode D3's striped cathode (-) 
end. This diode makes doubly sure that the capacitor won't be drained by the Kill A Watt. 

• Solder 2 more wires to the ends of the supercap's legs, black to - and white or red to +. 
Then heat-shrink over the whole diode and the exposed capacitor leads. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 9 — ASSEMBLE THE SENSOR/TRANSMITTER 




• Now, the fun part — we'll fillet, stuff, and reassemble the Kill A Watt! 

• Open the Kill A Watt by removing the 3 screws. Be careful not to damage the ribbon cable 
holding the sides together! 

• NOTE : If your Kill A Watt looks a little different from this photo, that's OK. The 
innards are the same. You may just need longer wires to place the supercap. 

• Now it's time to jack into the sensor output! Melt a bit of solder to "tin" the ends of your 
power, ground, and sensor wires from the XBee board, then tin pins 1 , 4, 1 1 , and 14 of the 
LM2902 op-amp chip inside the Kill A Watt. Connect power to pin 4, ground to pin 1 1 , 
analog in ADO to pin 14, and AD4 to pin 1. 



& 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 10 




• Plug a configured XBee module into the adapter board, put some foam sticky tape or hot 
glue on the back, and fit it into the Kill A Watt case. Also find a place for the supercap, 
using tape or glue if needed. They should fit with no problem. 

• Find a good place in the Kill A Watt case for the activity indicator (RSSI) LED, and drill a 
hole to fit. This lets you see when the XBee is transmitting. 

• Close it up and plug it in. You'll notice it's a bit finicky for a few seconds as the big 
capacitor charges up, but after about 15 seconds you should see the display stabilize and 
the red LED blink every 2 seconds. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 11 — PREPARE THE BASE STATION 



: X-CTU [COM4] 



PC SeUhgs | Range Test Teimirwl | Modem CofrfigL*ation | 



CTS 
-.T..dA.(. 



" ,_ ,_ Qose Assembte Clear Show 

!DTRl7RTSf? Break r ComPord Packet Scieen Hey 



.d?::' ] 



* 



t ../ z..... 

. . . . . .F. . . . . ..t d-.T. 

Q...N A 



COM4 9GO0 8-N-1 FL0W:M0NE 



Rx: 2G4 bytes 



' 



• Go back to your computer and plug 
the receiver XBee into the USB 
adapter. You should see its RSSI 
LED light up whenever the 
transmitters send data. That means 
you have a good link! 

• Run X-CTU and open the Terminal 
tab. You'll see a lot of junk, but 
what's important is that a new 
chunk is added every 2 seconds. 
The hardware is done. Good work! 



Step 12 — INSTALL AND CONFIGURE THE SOFTWARE 

• If you don't already have Python, download and install it from python.org/download . We 
built Tweet-a-Watt using version 2.5, so that's the safest. We installed it into the directory 
(file folder) C:\python25. 

• Download and unzip the Tweet-a-Watt code bundle from makezine.com/1 8/tweetawatt into 
a new project directory, C:\wattcher. This includes the wattcher.py Python script. 
Download 3 additional libraries linked from the same page, and put them into this project 
directory: win32file, so Python can write out the power data log file; pyserial, so it can 
communicate with the XBee through the serial port; and simplejson, to call the Twitter API. 

• Open wattcher.py in a text editor and change the SERIALPORT = line near the top (line 
24) to specify your serial port, from Step 1c. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 


Step 13 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



C:\WIND0WS\system32ttmd.exe 



: \wattcher>C : NPyt he 

Cur-rent drai 

Watt draw, i 

LJti i 

Current drav 

Watt draw, i 

Wh i 
Current drat 
Watt draw, i 

Uh i 
Current drat 
W^tt drau, i 

Uti L 
Current drat 
Watt draw, i 

Wh i 
Current drat 
Watt draw, i 

Uti i 
Current drat 
Matt draw, : 



eres: 0-38330170778 

.0265654649 

ast 6.0 seconds: 0. 

eres: 0.38330170778 

-174573055 

ast 2.03099989891 se 

eres: 0.402277939848 

-0834914611 

ast 2.03100013733 se 

ei-es: 0.387096774194 

-155597723 

ast 2.03099989891 se 

eres: 0.390891840607 

-7817836812 

ast 2.03200006485 se 

eres: 0.387096774194 

.1518636565 

ast 2.04699993134 se 

eres: 0.387096774194 

.8785578748 



0.0249218203914 



0.8259987715239 



0.0260394484193 



0.025105204724 



.0249376471053 



• Make sure one of your 
sensor/transmitter units (Kill A 
Watt + XBee) is plugged in and 
blinking every 2 seconds, and that 
the receiver XBee's RSSI LED is 
also blinking. Nothing should be 
plugged into the Kill A Watt yet, 
and its LCD should be clear, not 
fuzzy. 

• Open a Terminal window (Run 
cmd), navigate to the project 
directory (cd c:\wattcher), and run 
Python on the wattcher.py script 
(C:\python25\python.exe 
wattcher.py). You should see a 
steady stream of data listing 
current, wattage, and watt-hours 
since the previous reading. Hooray! 
We have wireless data! 

• The output of the script probably 
says that power is being used, so 
we need to calibrate the sensor in 
the code so that it knows where 
zero is. Type Ctrl-C to quit the 
script, then run it again with the 
debug flag -d 
(C:\python25\python.exe 
wattcher.py -d). In the output, look 
for lines that start with ampdata 
and note the number that follows. 
Quit the script, open wattcher.py in 
an editor again, and change the 
VREF calibration number listed for 
the sensor to this number. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 14 



L 




tuuibter 



Home Find People Help Sign out Search 






Currently using 37 Watts, 483 Wh today 
so far #tweetawatt 

3 minutes ago from web 




tweetawatt 

fried 1 torrone 




• Repeat Steps 5d-5f to test and 
calibrate your other 
sensor/transmitters one at a time. 

• Run the code, and watch the watts! 
A nice way to test is by sticking the 
meter on a dimmable switch and 
seeing how the dimmer affects the 
numbers. 

• Finally, let's configure the Tweet-a- 
Watt to tweet. If you don't already 
have a Twitter account, sign up at 
http://twitter.com/signup . Then edit 
wattcher.py again, and change the 
2 lines defining twitter user name 
and twitterpassword to specify 
your username and password. 
Then run the script as usual, and it 
will send a Current Usage tweet 
every 8 hours, at midnight, 8 a.m., 
and 4 p.m. 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



Step 15 — USE IT 



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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 




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• Graphing Data: An extra feature 
built into the Python script is code 
that graphically displays 2 hours of 
energy usage coming in from one 
of the sensors. To run this, install 
into the project directory the free 
graphing modules wxPython 
( wxpython.org ), matplotlib 
( matplotlib.sourceforge.net ). and 
NumPy and PyLab (both from 
scipy.org ). Then edit wattcher.py to 
set GRAPHIT = True. 

• Base Station Variations: Because 
the web/Twitter app uses Google 
authentication, we can feed data 
into it from a computer. A great 
enhancement would be to program 
an Arduino so that it could update 
the app's database, either by 
getting it to simulate a computer or 
by using another authentication 
scheme. The Arduino would let the 
base station be small and portable, 
drive outputs such as displays 
through simple direct circuitry, and 
work all the time on batteries 
without having to be booted up — 
all without requiring a big computer. 

• Phil's Story: Limor and I live at the 
same address, and after we 
developed the Tweet-a-Watt, she 
would look at the power graphs it 
created each morning. She saw 
these huge spikes every 2-3 hours 
at night, so she asked me what 
was going on. I needed to admit 

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Tweet-A-Watt Power Monitor 



that I have a hard time sleeping, 
and those spikes were when I went 
to the other room (my office) and 
turned on my giant 30" monitor. 
This project now gives away some 
of my sleep problems — if I could 
fix those, I'd likely consume less 
power. 



Step 16 — RESOURCES 

• Tweet-a-Watt GAE web app: wattcher.appspot.com 

• Limor's original Tweet-a-Watt tutorial: ladyada. net/make/tweetawatt 

• Tweet-a-Watt Twitter account: twitter.com/tweetawatt 

This project first appeared in MAKE Volume 18 , page 112. 

This document was last generated on 201 2-1 1 -03 04:1 3:21 AM. 



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